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Our excellent English language teaching is at the heart of our worldwide reputation

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Students love our beautiful, peaceful park location, right in the heart of Auckland city

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Education you can trust

Our excellent English language teaching is at the heart of our worldwide reputation

Great location

Students love our beautiful, peaceful park location, right in the heart of Auckland city

International friendships

Different languages and cultures help our students have fun, learn faster and make good friends for life

Talented teachers

Our friendly teachers give effective, enjoyable lessons and lots of individual attention to students

The focus is on You

We help you to achieve your learning goals and have an unforgettable New Zealand experience
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In the text of the Convention

The performing arts range from vocal and instrumental music, dance and theatre to pantomime, sung verse and beyond. They include numerous cultural expressions that reflect human creativity and that are also found, to some extent, in many other intangible cultural heritage domains.

Urtiin Duu, traditional folk long song Givenchy ChainTrimmed Stamped Lizard Leather Sandals b6SArCyvM
© Sonom-Ish Yundenbat

Music is perhaps the most universal of the performing arts and is found in every society, most often as an integral part of other performing art forms and other domains of intangible cultural heritage including rituals, festive events or oral traditions. It can be found in the most diverse contexts: sacred or profane, classical or popular, closely connected to work or entertainment. There may also be a political or economic dimension to music: it can recount a community’s history, sing the praises of a powerful person and play a key role in economic transactions. The occasions on which music is performed are just as varied: marriages, funerals, rituals and initiations, festivities, all kinds of entertainment as well as many other social functions. Dance, though very complex, may be described simply as ordered bodily movements, usually performed to music. Apart form its physical aspect, the rhythmic movements, steps and gestures of dance often express a sentiment or mood or illustrate a specific event or daily act, such as religious dances and those representing hunting, warfare or sexual activity.

Traditional theatre performances usually combine acting, singing, dance and music, dialogue, narration or recitation but may also include puppetry or pantomime. These arts, however, are more than simply ‘performances’ for an audience; they may also play crucial roles in culture and society such as songs sung while carrying out agricultural work or music that is part of a ritual. In a more intimate setting, lullabies are often sung to help a baby sleep.

Samba de Roda of the Recôncavo of Bahia Read more on the element © Luiz Santoz/UNESCO

The instruments, objects, artefacts and spaces associated with cultural expressions and practices are all included in the Convention’s definition of intangible cultural heritage. In the performing arts this includes musical instruments, masks, costumes and other body decorations used in dance, and the scenery and props of theatre. Performing arts are often performed in specific places; when these spaces are closely linked to the performance, they are considered cultural spaces by the Convention.

Many forms of performing arts are under threat today. As cultural practices become standardized, many traditional practices are abandoned. Even in cases where they become more popular, only certain expressions may benefit while others suffer.

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Presentations
From the June 2013 Issue
Explore the Archive

Executive Summary

Reprint: R1306K

For more than 30 years, the TED conference series has presented enlightening talks that people enjoy watching. In this article, Anderson, TED’s curator, shares five keys to great presentations:

According to Anderson, presentations rise or fall on the quality of the idea, the narrative, and the passion of the speaker. It’s about substance—not style. In fact, it’s fairly easy to “coach out” the problems in a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to have the raw material. So if your thinking is not there yet, he advises, decline that invitation to speak. Instead, keep working until you have an idea that’s worth sharing.

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A little more than a year ago, on a trip to Nairobi, Kenya, some colleagues and I met a 12-year-old Masai boy named Richard Turere, who told us a fascinating story. His family raises livestock on the edge of a vast national park, and one of the biggest challenges is protecting the animals from lions—especially at night. Richard had noticed that placing lamps in a field didn’t deter lion attacks, but when he walked the field with a torch, the lions stayed away. From a young age, he’d been interested in electronics, teaching himself by, for example, taking apart his parents’ radio. He used that experience to devise a system of lights that would turn on and off in sequence—using solar panels, a car battery, and a motorcycle indicator box—and thereby create a sense of movement that he hoped would scare off the lions. He installed the lights, and the lions stopped attacking. Soon villages elsewhere in Kenya began installing Richard’s “lion lights.”

The story was inspiring and worthy of the broader audience that our TED conference could offer, but on the surface, Richard seemed an unlikely candidate to give a TED Talk. He was painfully shy. His English was halting. When he tried to describe his invention, the sentences tumbled out incoherently. And frankly, it was hard to imagine a preteenager standing on a stage in front of 1,400 people accustomed to hearing from polished speakers such as Bill Gates, Sir Ken Robinson, and Jill Bolte Taylor.

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B shows a representative trajectory of a DOPE molecule recorded at a time resolution of 2 ms for a period of 5 s (Video 4). The statistical analysis categorized 94% of DOPE movements into hop or confined-type diffusion ( Philippe model Tropez panel sneakers 96EpeGWG0v
) at this time resolution. The quantitative hop analysis provided the distribution of the confinement size ( Ash Leaf embossed boots ld2R8D
A), its median value being 750 nm. The mean residency time within each 750-nm compartment was 0.65 s ( Table I ). Plausible compartments in the trajectory in Fig. 7 B were identified by a computer program developed here (the same as used for Puma Qje2cBuEZq IGNITE STATEMENT LOW Qje2cBuEZq shoes peacoat/aquarius Uf338bh
A) and are shown in different colors. Long-range diffusion occurs by successive hops among 750-nm compartments.

The residency time of DOPE in 750-nm compartments can be estimated from D 3s for Cy3–DOPE (0.42 μm 2 /s) and the average compartment size determined with gold-tagged DOPE (750 nm). The D 3s for Cy3–DOPE is likely to give more correct D 3s than that for gold-tagged DOPE because the D 3s obtained with gold probes is smaller than D 3s for Cy3–DOPE by a factor of 2.5, as stated in the beginning of the Results, possibly due to moderate steric or cross-linking effects of gold particles on long-range diffusion. Meanwhile, the compartment size could only be determined with gold-tagged DOPE, and the size is likely to be the same for both Cy3–DOPE and gold-tagged DOPE. Therefore, the residency time of Cy3–DOPE in 750-nm compartments is estimated to be 0.33 s ([0.75 μm] 2 /[4 × 0.42 μm 2 /s]) on average.

The diffusion rate inside 750-nm compartments ( D 20ms ) is 1.6 μm 2 /s ( Table I ), which coincides with the diffusion rate expected from a series of intercompartmental hops over 230-nm compartments once every 11 ms ([0.23 μm] 2 /[4 × 11 ms] = 1.2 μm 2 /s) (see the model in Valentino Pink Valentino Garavani Rockstud Sole Sandals JHtO7BNdo
). In addition to the reduction of the diffusion rate from 5.4 μm 2 /s to 1.6 μm 2 /s due to the confinement by 230-nm compartments, the further reduction in the diffusion rate by a factor of 4 to 0.42 μm 2 /s ( D 3s for Cy3–DOPE) is consistent with the presence of barriers every 750 nm. These results support the model in which the NRK cell membrane is compartmentalized into 750-nm and then into 230-nm compartments with regard to the lateral diffusion of DOPE molecules ( Fig. 8 ).

The presence of such double compartments is not likely to be an artifact of observing 230-nm compartments at lower time resolutions, because the distinct 230- and 750-nm compartments are seen in 25-μs observations ( Fig. 7, A and C ), and although we found compartmentalized diffusion of DOPE in other cell types, such as CHO, PtK2, COS1, and ECV304 cells, these cells did not show any signs of double compartmentalization. Therefore, double compartmentalization must be characteristic of the NRK cell membrane. Further quantitative analysis to confirm double compartmentalization is given in the online supplemental materials (available at http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/jcb.200202050/DC1 ).

Our multivariable-adjusted analyses revealed thatUACR was independently associated with severalparameters indicative of RV remodeling and dysfunction, a novel finding. This association may be attributable to LV diastolic dysfunction causing pulmonary venous hypertension, in turn leading to RV remodeling, dysfunction, and ultimately elevated central venous pressure. The increased renal venous congestion could then lead to increased albuminuria, a phenomenon observed in dogs (32) .

However, 2 items suggest the relationship may be more complex. First, the association in the present study between UACR and RV size and function parameters persisted after adjustment for echocardiographic estimates of PASP and RAP, which suggests a pathophysiological link between causes of increased UACR (such as endothelial dysfunction) and RV dysfunction and remodeling beyond RV preload or afterload. In addition, in the subset of patients in this study who underwent invasive hemodynamic testing, adjustment for pulmonary capillary wedge pressure did not attenuate the association between UACR andRV remodeling. Second, albuminuria is linked tocardiac remodeling and dysfunction before the development of HF Lugz Empire Lo Boot y0PMF3BEzh
. The source of this phenomenon is thus unclear. Albuminuria is theoretically related to multiple pathophysiological processes, including comorbidities, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction Calvin Klein Womens Gayle Pointy Toe Pump 7dIXzppkjs
. Some evidence suggeststhat systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction also play a role in HFpEF (13,14) .

Indeed, Paulus etal. ASICS GELDOMAIN 4 Handball shoes blue print/silver WcDy6Md7
recently posited a paradigm for HFpEF based on these pathophysiological processes. The authors suggest underlying HFpEF is asystemic proinflammatory state that leads to endothelial dysfunction, particularly in the coronary arteries, which in turn interrupts cardiomyocyte signaling and ultimately function. A corollary of this inflammation-endothelial dysfunction paradigm is myocardial dysfunction beyond the LV, as coronary inflammation and endothelial dysfunction sensitize other chambers (such as the RV) to stress. Previous work by our group has shown that RAP in HFpEF withpulmonary hypertension (World Health Organization group 2 pulmonary hypertension) is higher than in those with World Health Organization group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension despite similar pulmonary artery pressures in the 2 syndromes (36) , which suggests greater intrinsic RV dysfunction in HFpEF. Thus, it is possible that the observed associations between higher UACR and greater RV remodeling/dysfunction, independent of comorbidities, RAP, and PASP, are related to inflammation and endothelial dysfunction that may underlie both albuminuria and RV dysfunction in HFpEF.

We also found that higher UACR was independently associated with lower PRSW and global longitudinal strain, markers of LV systolic dysfunction. Higher UACR also correlated with higher E/e′ ratio and worse diastolic function grade, but these associations failed to reach statistical significance. However, the strong association between UACR and BNP in the presence of normal LV volumes and preserved EF suggests that higher UACR is likely associated with increased diastolic wall stress. No other study has examined the relationship between UACR and echocardiographic evidence of LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in HFpEF.